It is a photovoltaic framework that captures sun’s energy at an angle of 30-45° and by absorbing these rays, it starts converting photons into electricity. The process of this conversion involves many factors such as layers of solar cells (silicon, phosphorus, and boron), inverter, battery, and charge control system.
Solar panel model design: (1)
It consists of photon accepters or solar cells that are made up of silicon, phosphorous (negatively charged), and boron (positively charged) semiconductors. Combination of semiconductors and photons, electricity is generated.
Solar panel working:
The working mechanism of the solar panel is very easy as its construction. When the sun rays reached the solar plates, semiconductors attached to the positive and negative side starts expelling electron from the last shell of silicon and phosphorous thus generate a circuit that helps in generating electric power and storing it in the battery.
The photovoltaic process gives the DC power but in the United States, AC is more useful to transmit over a long distance at less cost as compared to DC. So to change DC into AC, the inverter is used for this conversion.
Functions of Solar inverter:
- It takes the DC (Direct Current) that comes from the solar light and by using this light converts it into the AC (Alternative Current).
- It works as a central unit similar to the brain in humans and indicates the problem in the panel such as an increase or decrease in the rate of voltage, current, energy requirement, and power tracking.
- Central inverters were the main performers since PV technology was introduced, but with the addition of micro-inverter efficiency of every single plate has been enhanced.
- If the Central inverter found any fault due to dirty grids or shade on the plate then it slows down the whole performance of the system. On the other, in the micro-inverter, the case is different because if it finds any errors in the PV plate it allows the rest of the PV system to operate smoothly.
Solar panel Cost:
In the United States, the average cost of the installation of the solar panel is $15,000 to $25,000 explained by the CENTER FOR SUSTAINABLE ENERGY. High installation cost is not a big deal when compared to home electricity bills from other sources.
To reduce the cost of installation you must know about the different factors that are involved in the cost reduction of the solar panel such as location, and incentives. Six factors that help you to find the right return on your investment and these factors are as follows:
- Electricity bill review: Solar panel has its power generation ability that helps to overcome your expenses. A higher electricity bill urges the chance of moving towards the solar system. The more you consume solar power, the more you are saving from traditional electricity. The solar panel is a long-term investment that has less repairing and maintenance cost.
- Sunlight exposure: Before you decide to buy a solar panel make sure about the sunlight ratio in your area and roof where you want to install it. It is obvious that as the plates get in contact with sun rays it produces energy. So you can check the efficiency of your solar panel with the sun rays with the calculator of SOLAR-ESTIMATE, by entering the location and dimension detail of your home.
- Estimate solar residential cost: Calculating the installation cost, the first thing you should know is the per day consumption of traditional electricity and multiplies it for the 20 years because solar panels last for 20 years without any maintenance expense. If your traditional cost is more than the initial installation cost, then you must go for it otherwise it is not necessary.
- Look for incentives: The government of the United States gives handsome incentives on installing the solar panel at home which is about 26℅ of the total charges. It will also provide you the cheapest cost of solar energy.
- Keep eye on trading policy: it also helps in estimating the cost of solar panels, because Donald Trump imposed 30℅ tariffs on the import of solar panels till February 2022 with a gradual decrease of 5℅ every year.
The installation procedure of solar: (2)
Solar panels are mostly installed by different companies but if you have the experience of playing with the electrical equipment then here are some useful steps you should know before installing the solar panels:
- Selecting the location: the first and most important step is to find the best place for installation where sun rays are sufficient to hit the plates. This will help in saving energy and thus consumption.
- Platform Setting: After selecting the right place next is to build the infrastructure where the solar plates will sit. The structures of panel plates are completely made of Aluminium that helps in reducing the danger of rusting. Make sure the height and width of the frames are according to standard so that they can resist the extreme conditions of weather either strong winds or heavy rain.
- Mounting the panel: after placing the platform, now firmly installed the panels and joined them with nuts and bolts that help in keeping the panels in the right position. You must be careful in mounting the panels because it may cause serious damage and accidents.
- Wiring: The follow-up step of mounting is wiring because without proper wiring the setup is useless. So join the wires to solar plates at one end and the other end with the batteries and inverter, this step is very technical and tricky because for proper flowing of circuit every wire should be fixed with its proper sockets. After the wiring, the current will flow and the solar panel is ready for its functioning.
- Earthed the solar mounting: it is a very necessary step to avoid major disasters as it can save your life from sudden shocks, and save the wires from catching fire.
- Test Run: After the satisfaction of all the above processes, test your solar panel by plugging in the power button. It will give you all the readings and performance of your solar panel.